CCD Images


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   M45 (The Pleiades)  Also known as the Seven Sisters, this relatively young star cluster can easily be spotted with the naked eye in the constellation of Taurus.  The hot bright stars shine through gas and dust creating a beautiful reflection nebula.  This image was taken on 8/20/09 at the Oregon Star Party in central Oregon.  It is  comprised of 30 two minute exposures using an ST-4000XCM camera on a Televue Genesis SDF and Losmandy GM-8/Gemini mount.  Calibration and color separation was done using CCDStack, and final processing was done using Photoshop.

    M42 (Orion Nebula)  This huge collection of dust and gas is actively forming new stars.  It is visible to the naked eye as the middle "star" in Orion's sword.  Visible just to the left of the great nebula is M43 and to the far left is NGC 1977 (The Running Man Nebula).  This image was taken on 1.29/2009 from the Dilbert Observatory in Forest Grove.  Equipment used was an ST-4000XCM camera through a Televue Genesis SDF on a Losmandy GM-8 mount.  The image is comprised of 40 two minute exposures processed as the M31 image below.

    IC 5070 (Pelican Nebula)  This glowing cloud of gas and dust is in Cygnus near the North America nebula.  This was one of my first attempts at an image with SBIG's ST-4000 one-shot color camera mounted on a Televue Genesis SDF on a GM-8 mount.  The image is comprised of 20 five minute exposures taken on 8/28/08 at the Oregon Star Party.  The images were processed exactly the same as the M31 image below.

    M31 (Andromeda Galaxy)  This large galaxy is the largest  neighbor of the Milky Way.  A member of the local group, M31 is about 2 million light years away - quite close by astronomical standards.  This was one of my first attempts at an image with SBIG's ST-4000 one-shot color camera mounted on a Televue Genesis SDF on a GM-8 mount.  The image is comprised of 20 five minute exposures taken on 8/28/08 at the Oregon Star Party.  The Bayer images were calibrated with dark and flat frames, then each color channel (R, G, B) was extracted and processed separately using CCDStack.  Each color was aligned, sigma filtered and stacked using the mean.  The resulting 3 color channel images were combined in Photoshop and the composite color image was stretched using levels and curves.

    NGC 6781  This 11th magnitude planetary nebula in Aquila is the outer atmosphere of the central star that was blown off near the end of its life.  This LRGB image was taken on August 2, 2008 from the Dilbert Observatory in Forest Grove, OR using a 10" R-C telescope on a Mountain Instruments MI-250 and ST-2000XM camera. The luminance image is the sigma reject mean of 15 five minute exposures.  Color was taken binned 2x2 with an exposure ratio of 2:1:1.25.  Initial processing was done with CCDStack and color combining and tuning was done in Photoshop.

    NGC 6960 (The Veil Nebula - Western Section)  This nebula is part of a larger supernova remnant known as the Cygnus Loop.  The bright star in the center (52 Cygnus) is not associated with the nebula, but make a nice marker when trying to find this object with a telescope.  This image was taken on August 17, 2007 during the Oregon Star Party at Indian Trail Springs.  Equipment used: Televue Genesis SDF 4" APO refractor on a Losmandy GM-8/Gemini mount and an ST-2000 camera.   The clear Luminance image is the sigma reject mean of 22 two minute exposures.  Color was taken binned 2x2 with an exposure ratio of 2:1:1.25.  Initial processing was done with CCDStack and color combining and tuning was done in Photoshop.

    B33 and  NGC 2024 (Horsehead and Flame nebulae)  This wonderful nebula complex sits just below Orion's belt was taken on January 14th 2007 from the Dilbert Observatory in Forest Grove, Oregon using a Televue Genesis 4" APO refractor on a Losmandy GM-8/Gemini mount and an ST-2000 camera.   The clear Luminance image is the sigma reject mean of 24 two minute exposures.  Color was taken binned 2x2 with an exposure ratio of 2:1:1.25.  Initial processing was done with CCDStack and color combining and tuning was done in Photoshop.

    IC 5070 (Pelican Nebula)  This glowing cloud of gas and dust is in Cygnus near the North America nebula.  Taken on 8/23 and 8/24 2006 from the Oregon Star Party at Indian Trail Springs using a Televue Genesis 4" APO refractor on a Losmandy GM-8/Gemini mount and an ST-2000 camera.  The luminance image is the sum of a standard broadband L image and an image taken through a red filter.  The clear L image is the sigma reject mean of 20 two minute exposures, and the red L image is the sigma reject mean of 12 five minute exposures.  Color was taken binned 2x2 with an exposure ratio of 2:1:1.25.  Initial processing was done with CCDStack and color combining and tuning was done in Photoshop.

    M16 (Eagle Nebula)  This is a wide field shot of the famous "Pillars of Creation" and surrounding nebulosity.  Taken on 7/27/06 from Mt. Bachelor, OR with a Televue Genesis 4" APO refractor on a Losmandy GM-8/Gemini mount using an ST-2000XM camera.  The luminance image is the sigma reject combination of 20 two minute images.  Initial processing was done with CCDStack and color combining and tuning was done using Photoshop.

    NGC 5985  This 11th mag spiral galaxy in Draco is the brightest of a multiple galaxy group.  Just out of the frame below, is NGC 5982.  There are 3 PGC galaxies in this image that are just fainter than 17th magnitude.  There are numerous other faint galaxies in this image, but they are not plotted by The Sky.  I would guess that most are around 19th mag.  This image was taken between June 17th and June 23rd 2006 from Dilbert Observatory using the 10" R-C and ST-2000.  The luminance image is the sigma reject combination of 45 5 minute images taken on the 17th and 23rd.  Color data was taken on the 18th.  Initial processing was done with CCDStack and color combining and tuning was done using Photoshop.

    NGC 4725  This spiral galaxy in Coma Berenices is somewhat unusual in that it appears to have only a single spiral arm.  This LRGB image was taken on May 16th and 17th 2006 from the Dilbert Observatory in Forest Grove, OR.  Equipment used was a 10" R-C on an MI-250 mount and an SBIG ST-2000XM camera.  The luminance layer is the sigma reject combination of 12 exposures of 10 minutes each.  The seeing was mediocre that night, and CCDSharp was used to provide some L-R deconvolution..  The color data was obtained the next night.  Each color channel was binned 2x2.  The RGB ratio was 2:1:1.25.  Initial processing of all images was done with CCDStack, while final LRGB processing and fine tuning was done using Photoshop.

    Barnard 33 (The Horsehead Nebula).  This well known nebula is a finger of dust reaching up out of a long bar of dust.  We can see it because it is silhouetted against a wall of glowing gas.  This LRGB image was obtained on Feb 18th and 19th 2006 with an ST-2000XM camera and 10" RCOS on an MI-250 mount.  The seeing was pretty bad both nights (FWHM between 3.5 and 4).  The L component was the sigma rejected sum of 18 ten minute images.  The color data consists of an additional 72 minutes of RGB (2:1:1.3 ratio).  All color components were binned 2x2 and sigma reject combined.  Initial processing was done using CCDStack.  The R, G, and B components were scaled and aligned using RegiStar, and the LRGB processing was done using Photoshop.

    NGC 7635 (The Bubble Nebula).  Yet another image of the Bubble Nebula, this time with the 10" R-C on an MI-250 mount and an SBIG ST-2000XM camera.  Taken from Forest Grove, OR on Nov. 20th, 22nd and 23rd 2005.  The Luminance is a sigma reject mean of 18 ten minute images.  Color data is a sigma reject mean of 10 images each of 4 min (red) 2 min (green), and 2.5 min (blue).  All processing up until color combination was done with Stan Moore's CCDStack program.  Color combine and tuning was done in Photoshop CS.

    IC 5146 (The Cocoon Nebula)  Here's a wide field view of this large faint nebula in Cygnus surrounding star cluster IC 5146 (see below for a close-up).  It is located at the end of a large dark nebula through the heart of the Milky Way.  This LRGB image was taken on August 4th and 5th 2005 from Forest Grove, OR using an ST-2000XM camera and a Televue Genesis SDF 100mm refractor on a Losmandy GM8/Gemini mount.  The luminance image is a std. deviation mean combination of 30 two minute images.  R, G, and B images were a combination of 9 images each of duration 4.5, 2, and 3 minutes.  Combining was done using Ray Gralak's Sigma Pre-beta 11 program.   Color combine and level and curve processing was done with Photoshop.  The image was slightlycropped and reduced to 1024x740.

    NGC 2237-9, 46 (The Rosette Nebula)  This huge cloud of glowing gas and dust in Monoceros is over 1 degree across - more than twice the size of the full moon.  The associated star cluster, NGC 2244, was discovered by Flamsteed, and observed by Herschel, but the nebulosity wasn't discovered until later, and different parts were given different NGC numbers.  This LRGB image was taken on Feb. 9th and 14th from Forest Grove, OR using an ST-2000XM camera and 4" Televue Genesis SDF refractor.  I used a minus-violet filter on the L and B images to reduce star bloat somewhat.  The luminance image is a std. deviation mean combination of 40 two minute images with slight unsharp masking.  R, G, and B images were a combination of 10 images each of duration 4.5, 2, and 3 minutes.  Combining was done using Ray Gralak's Sigma Pre-beta 11 program.   Color combine and level and curve processing was done with Photoshop

NGC7023_10x7.jpg (85236 bytes)    NGC 7023 (The Iris Nebula)  A beautiful cloud of gas and dust surrounding a bright star.  This LRGB image was taken 7/23 and 7/24 of 2004 from Forest Grove, OR using an ST-2000XM camera and a 10" RCOS Ritchey-Cretien OTA on a Losmandy G-11/Gemini mount.  The luminance image is a std. deviation mean combination of 32 five minute images guided with an AO7 at 0.5 Hz.  Seeing was poor.  R, G, and B images were a combination of 8 images each of duration 6, 3, and 4 minutes.  Combining was done using Ray Gralak's Sigma Pre-beta 11 program.   Color combine and level and curve processing was done with Photoshop.  The image was cropped and reduced to 800x600.

Cocoon8x6.jpg (117983 bytes)    IC 5146 (The Cocoon Nebula)  This large faint nebula in Cygnus surrounds star cluster IC 5146.  It is located at the end of a large dark nebula through the heart of the Milky Way.  This LRGB image was taken on July 11th and 16th, 2004 from Forest Grove, OR using an ST-2000XM camera and a 10" RCOS Ritchey-Cretien OTA on a Losmandy G-11/Gemini mount.  The luminance image is a std. deviation mean combination of 25 five minute images guided with an AO7 at 2 Hz.  R, G, and B images were a combination of 8 images each of duration 6, 3, and 4 minutes.  Combining was done using Ray Gralak's Sigma Pre-beta 11 program.   Color combine and level and curve processing was done with Photoshop.  The image was cropped and reduced to 800x600.

NEAT8x6.jpg (79641 bytes)    Comet NEAT (C/2001 Q4)  This comet reached naked eye visibility in early May, and was still going strong when this image was taken on 5/21/04 from Camp Hancock.  It was still visible to the naked eye, at maybe mag 5.  This image was the average of 10 one minute exposures.  You can see a satellite trail passed through one of the images.  The stars are smeared because the comet was slowly moving.  Taken with a Genesis SDF 4" refractor on a William Optics GT-ONE mount using an SBIG ST-2000XM camera.

    M84/M86 Galaxy Cluster  This is part of the Virgo Cluster centered around the 2 large elliptical galaxies, M84 and M86.  It also forms part of the well known Markarian's Chain of galaxies.  This image was taken on 5/21/04 from Camp Hancock in central Oregon.  13 five minute images were combined using a Sigma Rejection algorithm.  The resulting image was sharpened with 4 iterations of L-R deconvolution.  Color data was taken from Forest Grove on 2/15/05.  Final processing was done in Photoshop.  Taken with a Genesis SDF 4" refractor on a William Optics GT-ONE mount using an SBIG ST-2000XM camera.

M64-10x7.jpg (73799 bytes)    M64 (The Blackeye Galaxy)  This bright spring galaxy is best known for the huge dust feature near the center that give it the appearance of a black eye.  This dust feature is visible even through smaller telescopes.  It is thought that this is the result of a collision between 2 galaxies.  This LRGB image was taken on 5/11/04 and 5/12/04 from Forest Grove, OR using an ST-2000XM camera and a 10" RCOS Ritchey-Cretien OTA on a Losmandy G-11/Gemini mount.  The luminance image is a std. deviation mean combination of 22 five minute images guided with an AO7 at 3.3 Hz.  R, G, and B images were a combination of 10 images each of duration 6, 3, and 4 minutes.  Combining was done using Ray Gralak's Sigma Pre-beta 11 program.  4 iterations of L-R deconvolution were applied using CCDSharp.  Color combine and level and curve processing was done with Photoshop.  The image was cropped and reduced to 1024x768.

    M82  A fairly bright galaxy near the Big Dipper.  A recent interaction between M82 and its nearby companion M81 has left M82 with a contorted shape and increased star formation.  Also clearly evident is a fair amount of dust.  This image was taken on 4/29/04 from Forest Grove, OR with an ST-2000XM camera on a 10" RCOS Ritchey-Cretien OTA on a Losmandy G-11/Gemini mount.  The moon was quite bright and prevented getting the faint outer details.  Luminance image is the sigma-reject combination of 20 two minute images.  R, G, and B were the combination of 5 images each of duration 6, 3, and 4 minutes.  4 iterations of L-R deconvolution were applied using CCDSharp.  Color combine and level and curve processing was done with Photoshop.

M13Color.jpg (146291 bytes)    M13 (The Great Hercules Cluster).  Taken 7/25/03 with an ST-2000XM and Televue Genesis SDF on a William Optics GT-ONE mount at the Table Mountain Star Party in Washington..  Self guided using CCDSoft v5.  Ten 2 minute exposures were median combined.   Final processing (levels, curves, and layer mask composting) was done using Photoshop.  Color data taken 8/11/04 at the Oregon Star Party.

    NGC 4565 (The Needle Galaxy).  This fairly bright edge-on galaxy in Coma Berenices is a nice springtime target.  This image was taken from Forest Grove on 4/10/04 using a 10" Ritchey-Cretien telescope from RC Optical Systems on a Losmandy G-11/Gemini mount. and an SBIG ST-2000XM camera.  The seeing was rather poor.  LRGB image using the following exposure times:  L = 15 x 10 min, R  = 5 x 14 min., G = 5 x 6 min, B = 5 x 8 min.  Image reduction was done using CCDSoft v5.  L image was processed with 3 iterations of L-R using CCDSharp.  Image combination was done using Sigma Beta 10, and color combining and final processing was done using Photoshop.

NGC891.jpg (48436 bytes)    NGC 891  This large edge-on spiral galaxy is located in Andromeda.  It is thought that our Milky Way galaxy might look very similar if viewed from the right angle.  This image was taken on Feb 9, 10, and 11, 2004 from Forest Grove, Oregon using a Celestron C-11 on a G-11/Gemini mount with an ST-9XE.  Guiding was done with an AO7 tracking at 0.1Hz.  The luminance image was a combination of 35 four minute exposures which were sigma combined.    4 iterations of LR deconvolution were applied to the luminance image using CCDSharp.  Color combining and final processing (levels and curves) were done in Photoshop.

M76.jpg (42744 bytes)    M76 (The Little Dumbell Nebula)  This bright planetary nebula in Perseus looks a little bit like its larger namesake in Vulpecula, although more irregular in shape.  This LRGB image was taken on 10/23/03 from the Forest Grove, Oregon using a Celestron C-11 on a G-11/Gemini mount with an ST-9XE.  Guiding was done with an AO7 tracking at 4Hz.  The luminance image was a combination of 10 two minute exposures which were sigma combined.   R, G, and B images were 2:2:3 minutes respectively.  5 iterations of LR deconvolution were applied to the luminance image using CCDSharp.  Color combining and final processing (levels and curves) were done in Photoshop. 

M31FullComp.jpg (214466 bytes)    M31 (Andromeda Galaxy)  This large galaxy is the largest  neighbor of the Milky Way.  A member of the local group, M31 is about 2 million light years away - quite close by astronomical standards.  The galaxy is so large on the sky, that it wouldn't all fit into this image, taken with a Genesis SDF 100mm refractor on a William Optics GT-ONE mount and an SBIG ST-2000XM camera.  The image was taken on 9/27/03 at Indian Trail Springs in central Oregon.  Twenty 2 minute images were sigma combined for this monochrome image.  I used Photoshop to adjust the curves and to apply a layer mask to get detail in the outer regions without washing out the core.

    NGC 253 (Sculptor Galaxy)  This large bright galaxy is often overlooked by northern hemisphere observers due to its declination of 25 degrees south.  This LRGB image as taken on 9/29/03 at the site of the Oregon Star Party in central Oregon.  Equipment used was a Genesis SDF 100mm refractor on a William Optics GT-ONE mount and an SBIG ST-2000XM camera.  Luminance was the sigma combine of 20 two minute exposures.  RGB data was the sigma combine of 5 images in each color of duration 5:2:2.5 minutes.  4 iterations of L-R deconvolution was applied using CCDSharp, and final processing and color combining was done in Photoshop.

    M8 (The Lagoon Nebula)  This bright, well known emission nebula in Sagittarius is thought to be a very active star forming region.  The associated cluster (NGC 6530) was formed from the nebula's gas, and was actually discovered before the nebula.  This LRGB image as taken on 8/30/03 at the Oregon Star Party in central Oregon.  Equipment used was a Genesis SDF 100mm refractor on a William Optics GT-ONE mount and an SBIG ST-2000XM camera.  Luminance was the sigma combine of 20 two minute exposures.  RGB data was the sigma combine of 5 images in each color of duration 2:1:1.25 minutes.  4 iterations of L-R deconvolution was applied using CCDSharp, and final processing and color combining was done in Photoshop.

    NGC 7293 (The Helix Nebula)  This planetary nebula located in Aquarius is nearly as big as the full moon.  It is quite close to us, at a distance of about 650 light years.  This LRGB image was taken on 8/29/03 at the Oregon Star Party in central Oregon.  Equipment used was a Genesis SDF 100mm refractor on a William Optics GT-ONE mount and an SBIG ST-2000XM camera.  Luminance was the sigma combine of 12 five minute exposures.  RGB data was the sigma combine of 5 images in each color of duration 5:2.5:3 minutes.  Final processing and color combining was done in Photoshop.

    M33 (The Pinwheel Galaxy)  This large spiral galaxy in Triangulum appears larger on the sky than the full moon.  It is a member of the local group and is approx. 3 million light years away.  This LRGB image was taken on 7/24/03 from the Table Mountain Star Party in central Washington.  Equipment used was a Genesis SDF 100mm refractor on a William Optics GT-ONE mount and an SBIG ST-2000XM camera.  Luminance was the sigma combine of 16 five minute exposures.  RGB data was the sigma combine of 5 images in each color of duration 5:2.5:3 minutes.  4 iterations of LR deconvolution were applied using CCDSharp.  Final processing and color combining was done in Photoshop.

    NGC 6503.  Spiral galaxy in Draco.  LRGB image taken on 6/27/03 and 7/2/03 using a Celestron C-11 on a G-11/Gemini mount with an ST-9XE.  Guiding was done with an AO7 tracking at 6Hz.  The luminance image was a combination of 30 two minute exposures.  These were median combined in groups of 5, and then the 6 resulting images were added.  5 iterations of LR deconvolution were applied using CCDSharp, and final processing (levels and curves) was done in Photoshop.

    Mars.  This is my first attempt at planetary imaging.  It was taken on 7/6/03 at 10:10 UTC using a Celestron C-11 on a G-11 mount and an ST-2000XM camera.  Exposure was 0.02 sec in red and 0.01 sec in green and blue.  It was a straight RGB combine in Photoshop with some unsharp masking.

    M17 (The Swan Nebula).  This large mass of glowing gas resembles a swan, or the Greek letter Omega.  Color data was taken on 7/2/03 and the luminance was taken on 7/5/03.  The L image was a sigma reject combination of 10 three minute images.  I used CCDSharp to perform 5 iterations of LR deconvolution.  Final processing and LRGB combining was done in Photoshop.  Taken with a C-11 on G-11/Gemini mount with an ST-2000XM and AO7 tracking at 6Hz.

    NGC 6992 (The Veil Nebula - Eastern section).  This is the eastern section of a much larger supernova remnant in Cygnus.  This LRGB image was taken on 6/1/03 at Camp Hancock in central Oregon.  Equipment used was an SBIG ST-2000XM camera and CFW-8A with a Televue Genesis SDF refractor on a William Optics GT-ONE mount.  L = 10 x 5 min, R = 8 x 5 min, G, B = 4 x 5 min.  Color components were binned 2x2.  Five iterations of L-R deconvolution were done on the L image using CCDSharp.  The R, G, and B components were scaled and aligned using RegiStar, and the LRGB processing was done using Photoshop.

    M81 and M82.  These 2 bright galaxies in Ursa Major are favorite targets for telescopes of all sizes.  A recent interaction between these 2 galaxies has left M82 (on the right) with a contorted shape and increased star formation.  Also clearly evident is a fair amount of dust.  This LRGB image was taken on 5/31/03 at Camp Hancock in central Oregon using an SBIG ST-2000XM camera and CFW-8A with a Televue Genesis SDF refractor on a William Optics GT-ONE mount.  L = 16 x 5 min, R, G, B = 5 x 2 min binned 2x2.  The R, G, and B components were scaled and aligned using RegiStar, and the LRGB processing was done using Photoshop.  Because the ST-2000XM is relatively insensitive in red, the color balance was hand tuned in Photoshop.

eskimo2.jpg (20646 bytes)    NCG 2392 (The Eskimo Nebula).  This small, bright planetary nebula in Gemini slightly resembles an Eskimo's face surrounded by a parka hood.  Others see a clown's face.  This LRGB image was taken on 3/29/03 with an ST-9XE camera on a Celestron C-11 at f/20 (using a Televue 2x Powermate).  Guiding was done using the AO7 at about 2 Hz.  The L image is the median of 20 two minute images, with 8 iterations of L-R deconvolution applied using CCDSharp.  R, G, and B were the median of 5 four minute images binned 2x2.  The R, G, and B components were scaled and aligned using RegiStar, and the LRGB processing was done using Photoshop.

Horsehead-web.jpg (47913 bytes)    Barnard 33 (The Horsehead Nebula).  This well known nebula is a finger of dust reaching up out of a long bar of dust.  We can see it because it is silhouetted against a wall of glowing gas.  This LRGB image was obtained on Feb 5th and 6th 2003 with an ST-9XE camera on a Celestron C-11 on a G-11/Gemini mount.  The L component was the sum of 19 five minute images.  The R and G components are 5 three minute images and the B is 8 three minute images.  All color components were binned 2x2 and median combined.  The R, G, and B components were scaled and aligned using RegiStar, and the LRGB processing was done using Photoshop.

M1LRGB.jpg (109988 bytes)    M1 (The Crab Nebula).  This is a supernova remnant from a star that exploded in 1054 AD.  The L component of this LRGB image was obtained on 11/16/00 with an ST-7E camera and was the sum of 8 two minute exposures.  Four iterations of L-R deconvolution were applied using CCDSharp.  The color components were obtained on 12/7/02 with an ST-9XE camera using 2x2 binning.  The R and G components are 5 two minute exposures and the B component consists of 7 two minute exposures.  All images were taken with a Celestron C-11 on a G-11/Gemini mount.  The R, G, and B components were scaled and aligned using RegiStar, and the LRGB processing was done using Photoshop.

NGC7635-COLOR4.jpg (137984 bytes)    NGC 7635 (The Bubble Nebula).  See description below.  R, G, and B components were taken 8/30/02.  I took several 2 minute exposures in each color binned 2x2.  Rather than adding the images for each color, I did a median combine to eliminate some artifacts on several of the images.  I scaled the RGB images 1:1:1.6, performed a gaussian blur of radius 1.5 on each, then combined them using AIP4WIN.  Finally, I used photoshop to eliminate the blooming on the brightest star.

M27-COLOR.jpg (100636 bytes)    M27 (Dumbell Nebula) - See description below.  R, G, and B components were taken 8/27/02.  Exposure times were R=300 sec, G=300sec, B=480 seconds.

M57-Color-lg.jpg (25817 bytes)    M57 (The Ring Nebula)  - See description below.  R, G, and B components were taken 8/16/02.

M16Color.jpg (128896 bytes)    M16 (The Eagle Nebula).   Also known as the Pillars of Creation from the Hubble image.  The luminance image was taken 7/16/02 with the ST-9XE/AO7 and CG-11/Gemini.  This was a test of the fix to CCDSoft v5 to get AO7 working.  I couldn't find a very bright guide star, so the AO7 was only guiding at 1 Hz.  Eleven 2 minute exposures were added, then processed with 4 iterations of L-R deconvolution using CCDSharp.  Adjusted for range and contrast.  Color data was obtained on 6/6/03.

M27-COMPOSIT.jpg (149106 bytes)    M27 (The Dumbell Nebula).   Taken 7/4/02 with an ST-9XE/AO7 and Celestron CG-11/Gemini.  Guided using AO7 at 10Hz with CCDOPS v5.  Ten 2 minute exposures were added, then processed with 4 iterations of L-R deconvolution using CCDSharp.  The resulting image was then processed using a layer mask in Photoshop.

M63-COMPOSIT-ST9.jpg (90177 bytes)    M63 (Sunflower Galaxy).  Taken 6/12/02 with an ST-9XE and Celestron CG-11/Gemini.  Self guided using CCDSoft v5.  Nineteen 2 minute exposures.  4 iterations of L-R deconvolution using CCDSharp.  Image was processed twice - once to reveal inner detail and once to reveal outer detail.  The 2 images were combined with a layer mask in Photoshop

NGC7635-comp.jpg (150243 bytes)  NGC 7635 (The Bubble Nebula).  Taken 7/1/02 at f/10 with the C-11 on a G-11/Gemini mount and an ST-9XE camera.  16 two minute exposures added.  4 iterations of L-R deconvolution were applied using CCDSharp.  The result was then processed using a layer mask in Photoshop.

M57-ST9.jpg (25431 bytes)    M57 (The Ring Nebula).  This planetary nebula consists of  the outer atmosphere that was blown off of a star in the later stages of its life.  The star itself is seen in the very center of the ring.  This image was taken on 6/12/02 with my brand new ST-9XE camera on the CG-11/Gemini.  This is an enlargement of a wider field image.  Image was self guided and consists of 8 two minute images.  4 iterations of L-R deconvolution were applied using CCDSoft.

composit.jpg (37623 bytes)    M104 (The Sombrero Galaxy).   This nearly edge-on spiral galaxy is one of the brighter examples of a galaxy with a dark dust lane running through it.  Taken 5/15/02 with an ST-7E and Celestron CG-11/Gemini.  Guided with CCDSoft v5 controlling the AO7 unit running at 0.5 Hz.   Eight 5 minute exposures were added.  5 iterations of L-R deconvolution was then applied using CCDSharp.  Finally, the image was processed twice - once to reveal inner detail and once to reveal outer detail, and the 2 images were combined with a layer mask in Photoshop.

doubleqso.jpg (314530 bytes)    Q0957 +561 A/B (Double Quasar in Ursa Major)   This is an image of a gravitationally lensed quasar.  The 2 components appear about 6" apart and are actually images of the same quasar that have been gravitationally bent around a foreground galaxy.  The quasar is the 2 spots very close together near the top of the image.  North is to the right.  Taken 5/15/02 with an ST-7E and Celestron CG-11/Gemini.  Single 2 minute exposure. 

ngc4565.jpg (43015 bytes)     NGC 4565 (The Needle Galaxy).  This is an edge-on spiral galaxy.  Taken 4/27/02 with an ST-7E and Celestron CG-11/Gemini.   Self guided using CCDSoft v5.  Ten 5 minute exposures.  5 iterations of L-R deconvolution using CCDSharp.

 m87-composit.jpg (79351 bytes)    M87.   Taken 4/27/02 with an ST-7E and Celestron CG-11/Gemini.  Self guided using CCDSoft v5.  Ten 2 minute exposures.  While not visually spectacular, this is an interesting active galaxy with a jet of material being ejected from its center.  Image was processed twice - once to reveal inner detail and once to reveal outer detail.  The 2 images were combined with a layer mask in Photoshop.

M51-composit.jpg (58966 bytes)    The Whirlpool Galaxy (M51).   Taken 2/24/01 with an ST-7E/AO-7 and Celestron CG-11.  AO-7 tracking at 1 Hz.   Ten 2 minute exposures, 4 iterations of L-R processing.

crabst7.jpg (17899 bytes)     The Crab Nebula (M1).  Taken 11/16/00 with an ST-7E/AO-7 and Celestron CG-11.  AO-7 tracking at 10Hz.  Eight 2 minute exposures.  Four iterations of L-R processing.  

ngc6946.jpg (20353 bytes)    NGC 6946.  Taken 7/5/99 with an ST-7E and Celestron CG-11.  Three 10 minute exposures.

M20.jpg (27424 bytes)    The Trifid Nebula (M20).  Taken with an ST-7 and Celestron CG-11

M74.jpg (26708 bytes)    M74 taken with an ST-7 and CG-11

M81.jpg (17057 bytes)    M81 taken with an ST-7 and CG-11

ngc2841_small.jpg (1034 bytes)    Supernova in NGC2841.  2 minute exposure taken on 5/21/99 using an ST-7 and CG-11

veil.jpg (145036 bytes)    Section of the Veil Nebula taken with an ST-7 and CG-11.

All Images Copyright 1997-2006 David Sandage